Frequently Asked Questions

 

Hides

How are animals skinned?  

KOTO tries to have as many machine skinned hides as possible in order to guarantee the best quality, and we also avoid any possible flaws caused by skinning by hand.

Where do these animals graze?  

Most hides come from barn-reared animals.

What are the hides like (thickness, structure,…)?  

Our hides are of the highest quality, with a nice front and grain (skinned).

Which category of hides do you provide?  

KOTO provides different categories, usually divided in 5 kg grades. To receive more information regarding our services and products write to hides@koto.si 

Which types of hides do you sell?  

We sell calf and bovine hides, and smaller quantities of horse, sheep and goat hides, as well as hides taken off of heads.

What is the process of processing hides?  

Because the period between the time an animal was skinned until the hide is preserved must not exceed 8 hours, all fresh hides that arrive at our storage facility must be salt-treated i.e. preserved on the day of arrival. The preservative used is salt, and the preserving technique is machine salting the flesh side of the hides, which are then stacked one atop of the other on a palette. The hides, which have been treated, are then left on the palette for one to two weeks, and sorted afterwards. They are separated according to their quality and weight category.

Which flaws are most common according to individual selections?  

Hides are graded according to the International Contract No. 6  - Hides and Skins passed by the International Council of Hides, Skins and Leather Traders (ICHSLTA). The details of the contract are available here >>

Where do you ship to?  

KOTO has partners in Europe and Asia. We can organise transport from Port of Koper to most major ports across the globe.

Which breeds of animals do the hides come from?  

There are more than ten different cattle breeds in Slovenia. The most common are Simmental, Brown Swiss, Holstein, and also Red Holstein. KOTO provides high-quality hides of these breeds. If you should require more information, contact us, because our stock changes on a regular basis.

 

Waste from wastewater purification facilities

What is a facility?  

A facility is a mobile or stationary unit, which is defined as being environmentally unfriendly due to processes taking place inside. Only facilities with an impact on water are covered.

What is an industrial facility?  

An industrial facility is a technological unit, where processes take place that can pollute water if industrial wastewater is drained. Special requirements regarding the emission of substances through industrial wastewater drainage are regulated by emission regulations.

What is a wastewater purification facility?  

A wastewater purification facility or plant is a facility where wastewater is processed in order to reduce or eliminate pollution. A municipal treatment plant is a purification plant for municipal wastewater or a mixture of municipal, industrial, and run-off rain water. A wastewater purification plant is a purification plant for the treatment of a mixture of municipal or run-off rain water or both with industrial wastewater, with more than 40% being industrial wastewater from one or more locations, measured through the chemical need for oxygen.

What is sludge from wastewater purification facilities?  

Sludge from a wastewater purification facility is waste left over after the water is purified or is accumulated in domestic cesspits after they are emptied.

What does the sludge consist of?  

The sludge contains 40-50 % organic substances and emits greenhouse gases when it decomposes. It also contains nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Wastewater often contains unwanted substances, which are deposited in the sludge due to the physical and chemical processes during the wastewater purification. These substances include, but are not limited to, heavy metals, organic substances resistant to decomposition, pathogen microorganisms (e.g. viruses and bacteria), as well as hormonally active substances. The unwanted substances limit the use of sludge for many useful purposes.

How can the sludge be treated in the EU ?  

Most European countries no longer dump municipal and industrial sludge on municipal dumps, and have also reduced the use in agriculture. The sludge is increasingly co-incinerated at industrial facilities, where they exploit the energy value of the sludge. Incineration is currently the most common practice of eliminating sludge in the EU.

What are the costs of treating sludge from purification facilities?  

The cost of treating sludge equals 30-50 percent of the purification facility's running costs.

 

Animal by-products

How is waste collected and transported?  

The collection and transport are conducted differently - depending on the category of waste and where the ABP was produced.

Category 1 and 2 ABP are collected as part of the public service. To collect ABP produced in registered facilities a contract with KOTO must be signed beforehand. Then the facility is included in the system of collection points and the process of regular ABP pickup in the collection route.
Category 1 and 2 ABP produced during food production for domestic use (agricultural holding) are collected by the appropriately authorised National Veterinary Institute.
If Category 3 ABP needs to be collected, KOTO is very adaptable. The method of collecting and transport is coordinated with each client individually, depending on the needs and the working process.

What is the minimum amount of waste collected by KOTO?  

There are no limitations on collecting ABP. We nevertheless recommend that smaller quantities of ABP are gathered together and collected with a single pickup. This reduces the environmental impact and optimizes costs.

What is the ABP collection process at your location?  

ABP are collected every day between 9:00-14:00. Sign in at the guardhouse where you will receive all the necessary documents and instructions.

Waste collection at KOTO can differ, which is why we recommend you call us at 01 58 78 158 beforehand. 
We will try to find a mutually satisfactory solution.

My freezer broke down. What to do with the thawed meat and/or meat products?  

Rotten meat can be delivered to KOTO. If you need us to collect it, call  01 58 78 100, or contact us using the online form.

Do I need to remove the ABP from their packaging?  

We prefer it if the packaging or other inorganic substances are removed from ABP. If arranged beforehand, we can also separate the ABP from inorganic substances at our production facility.

I am not a legal entity. May I bring domestic waste to KOTO?  

You can deliver waste to KOTO even as a private individual.

Which forms need to be filled in for category 3 ABP?  

All necessary documents are provided at the entrance to our company by a person in charge.
The documents can also be send via e-mail. You can request them using the online form or by sending an e-mail to rok.pustoslemsek@koto.si.

Where can I hand in remains of slaughter for personal use?  

You can deliver category 1 and 2 ABP produced by domestic food production to KOTO yourself, or deliver them to collection points at offices of the National Veterinary Institute in Murska Sobota, Ptuj, Celje, Novo mesto and Nova Gorica. 

If you need us to collect category 1 and 2 ABP, you can also order the service of collection at the point of origin (at an agricultural holding) using our subcontractor, the National Veterinary Institute - NVI (the cost of collecting is charged additionally). Private delivery is possible only during the week.

You can also deliver category 3 ABP yourself, or have us collect them directly. To order a pickup, send an e-mail to rok.pustoslemsek@koto.si or call us at 01 58 78 100 .

What are animal by-products or ABP?  

Animal by-products (ABP) are substances of animal origin not suitable for human consumption. If they are improperly used or eliminated, they can pose a threat to the health of people and animals, and to the environment, which is why the handling of animal by-products is regulated by both the European and Slovene legislature.
ABP are body parts or entire animal carcases, products of animal origin or other products made from animals, which are not intended for human consumption, including egg cells, foetuses and animal semen. They are divided into three categories according to their threat level to public health and health of animals: Category 1 ABP, Category 2 ABP, and Category 3 ABP.

What are category 1, 2 and 3 ABP?  

Animal by-products are divided into three categories according to their threat level to public health and health of animals:

  • Category 1 ABP are substances and mixtures that contain potentially hazardous material and need to be processed and eliminated as waste by incineration.
  • Category 2 ABP are mostly substances and mixtures of substances, such as mud, the digestive tract content, residue etc. They are processed into material suitable for organic fertiliser and biogas.
  • Category 3 ABP are mostly substances or mixtures of substances of animal origin, which are not used and discarded due to commercial reasons. They include hides, hog bristles, bird feathers, blood and body parts of slaughtered animals, which are deemed as inappropriate for human consumption, but show no signs of disease. They are processed.

*Category 1, 2, and 3 ABP are determined by Regulation (EC) No. 1069/2009 laying down health rules as regards animal by-products and derived products not intended for human consumption.

Why do ABP need to be processed?  

ABP can be hazardous waste without appropriate processing, which is why ABP treatment is strictly regulated and conducted under close veterinary supervision. 
European legislature sets the highest standards and regulations on a global scale, and they include 
- safe pickup of environmentally hazardous substances (or materials which could potentially be hazardous), 
- having complete traceability and safety in the processing chain by following the HACCP  system
- strict measures regarding the use of processed material.
By processing ABP, we also contribute to sustainable development and put the idea of circular economy into fruition; the processed ABP can be reused in the compound feed, fuel and fertiliser industries.


How are ABP processed?  

There are several ways of processing ABP, the most common being the one using the dry method based on dehydrating ABP first and then separating fat. During the procedure, ABP are first ground to a suitable size, thermally processed and dried. The moisture evaporating during the drying phase is channelled to condensers, where it is liquefied, and later on treated as wastewater. Dried ABP undergo the pressing phase, where fat is separated from the protein part. Fat is purified, the protein part is ground and sieved to the right granulation. End products are meat and bone meal and processed fat.
The key phase in processing ABP is removing moisture. Out of the collected total amount of ABP as much as 2/3 are separated and liquefied. Proper processing makes sure this water can be returned to nature and join the natural cycle.

How can ABP be used?  

Substances gained from ABP can be used for many different activities and industries. Certain substances need to be eliminated to protect the health of people, animals and the environment, but other materials (especially category 3 ABP) are indespensible raw materials in numerous production processes and contribute to the idea of the circular economy. Here are just a some of the many uses in accordance with the European legislature.


Category 1 ABP can be:

- eliminated with incineration

- processed or eliminated with co-incineration

- eliminated through high-pressure sterilisation treatment and buried at an authorised dumping area

- used as incineration fuel

- used to produce certain products, which can be sold in accordance with special regulation determined by European and Slovene legislation.


Category 2 ABP can be:

- eliminated with incineration

- processed and eliminated with co-incineration

- eliminated through high-pressure sterilisation treatment and buried at an authorised dumping area

- used in the production of organic fertilisers or soil improvement substances

- composted or turned into biogas

- used on open soil without prior processing if they include manure, the content of the digestive tract, milk, milk products and colostrum (products which pose no threat and do not spread any infectious diseases)

- used as incineration fuel,

- used to produce certain products, which can be sold in accordance with special regulation determined by European and Slovene legislation.


Category 3 ABP can be processed in several ways and can be used in different fields, and can be:

- eliminated with incineration
- eliminated or processed with co-incineration
- eliminated at an authorised dumping area (after being processed)

- processed and used as raw material for the production of animal feed, pet food and organic fertilisers

- used to produce raw pet food

- composted or turned into biogas

- used as incineration fuel

- used to produce certain products, which can be sold in accordance with special regulation determined by European and Slovene legislation.


 

Biodegradable waste

Which organic waste is accepted at KOTO?  

KOTO accepts biodegradable waste classified under following codes:

  • 02 01 02 Animal-tissue waste
  • 02 01 03 Plant-tissue waste
  • 02 01 99 Wastes not otherwise specified
  • 02 02 03 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing
  • 02 02 04 Sludges from on-site effluent treatment
  • 02 03 01 Sludges from washing, cleaning, peeling, centrifuging and separation
  • 02 03 04 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing
  • 02 03 99 Wastes not otherwise specified
  • 02 05 01 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing
  • 02 05 02 Sludges from on-site effluent treatment
  • 02 07 04 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing
  • 16 03 06 Organic wastes other than those mentioned in 16 03 05
  • 19 08 09 Grease and oil mixture from oil/water separation containing only edible oil and fat
  • 20 01 08 Biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste
  • 20 02 01 Biodegradable waste
  • 20 03 02 Waste from markets

If you require more information on collecting and type of waste, please, call us.

Where to put larger quantities of food items past their expiration date i.e. which have gone off?  

If you have food items past their expiration date or other spoilt food, call us or send an e-mail. Specify the type of waste, quantity and location.

Why must biodegradable waste be separated?  

Organic waste can be a significant burden on the environment, because it emits greenhouse gases with a high potential for global warming as it rots in rubbish dumps. Separate collection of biodegradable waste helps reduce the volume of mixed municipal waste, and also less greenhouse gases. Appropriate processing helps prevent uncontrolled rot and decay and consequently reduces air and underground water pollution.

Which waste is biodegradable waste?  

Organic waste includes: kitchen waste (vegetables, fruit, nonliquid leftovers, coffee grounds, egg shells, coffee filters and teabags), spoilt food items (food past its expiration date), paper bags and tissues, and garden waste (weed, cut grass, flowers, old soil, potting soil, etc.).

Do not put used oil and fat, meat, bones or cigarette butts in the bin for organic waste.

What happens to biodegradable waste when it arrives at KOTO?  

Biodegradable waste delivered to our company is appropriately processed. Most of the biodegradable waste is used to produce biogas i.e. green energy. The bacteria in the biodegradable waste helps us to produce gas using technological processes. We can harvest as much as 60 cubic metres of gas or 120 kW of electricity from a single tonne of biodegradable waste.

What happens if we do not separate biodegradable waste?  

Biodegradable waste can be a big problem, because it emits greenhouse gases and landfill leachate as it decomposes, which pollutes air and water.  
Also, if we do not separate waste, we increase the volume of municipal waste and lose the option of recycling – to reuse materials.

 

Used cooking oil

Where does used cooking oil come from?  

Used cooking oil is most commonly produced in kitchens, industrial plants, food service, educational and medical institutions.

Which types of oil are accepted at KOTO?  

KOTO accepts all types of used cooking oil and fat classified under 20 01 25 on the European List of Waste. Used cooking oil is accepted and processed in accordance with the regulations.

Can I pour used cooking oil in the kitchen sink or the toilet?  

Pouring oil and fat down the drain is prohibited, because you risk clogging the drain and attracting pests, and you also pollute the environment. Pouring used oil and fat down the drain indirectly pollutes surface and underground water – a mere litre can pollute as much as 1000 litres of water.

Where can I put used cooking oil?  

The law states that kitchens and catering establishments, which produce more than 20 meals daily, must discard the waste via a company authorised for waste collection.
Private individuals are encouraged to store the used oil in plastic bottles until they have gathered a larger amount of waste that can be delivered to the closest collection centre, where it will be accepted free of charge. 
Used cooking oil and fat can also be delivered in person to KOTO.

How are used cooking oil and fat used at KOTO?  

Used cooking oil and fat can be very useful as raw material in biodiesel and similar energy source production. Biodiesel is an alternative propellant, which burns up much cleaner than normal diesel fuel, but is still beneficial as a renewable energy source.

KOTO processes used cooking oil and fat into raw material, which can be used to produce biodiesel. We collaborate with several major biofuel producers in Europe.

Our solutions and products contribute significantly to realising the idea of the circular economy.
We are a reliable partner who will help you achieve economic, social and environmental goals.

Contact us